Penentuan Modulus Elastisitas Logam dengan Metode Ultrasonik Pulsa Gema

Firman Sasmita, Claudia Claudia, Gatot Wibisono, Tania Zefanya S Tarigan, Hermawan Judawisastra, Toni Agung Priambodo


Elasticity modulus is an important mechanical properties of metal because it is used in the component design process, namely stress analysis such as determination of stress distribution, reaction forces, deflection, and safety factor. Nondestructive testing are preferably in industry because of its efficiencies and effectivity. One of the nondestructive testing method is the ultrasonic. Measurement of ultrasonic wave velocity which propagates in a material medium was used as a basis for evaluation. Ultrasonic wave velocity depends on the density and elastic properties i.e. elasticity modulus and Poisson’s ratio. The common ultrasonic methods are transmission and pulse-echo. Pulse-echo is easier to use and require only one side of the material. This research aimed to determine elasticity modulus of metals i.e. steel and aluminum based on the measurement of longitudinal wave velocity by pulse-echo technique. The testing was performed using three straight probes with different frequencies (1, 2, 4 MHz) and diameters. Two methods for velocity measurement were used, namely 2 Point (2P) and Multiple Backwall Echoes (MBE). The successful elasticity modulus determined within error 0.05% − 6.23 % for steel and 0.17% − 6.53% for aluminum. The 4 MHz probe and 2P method resulted in smallest error, namely 0.05% for steel; the 1 MHz probe and MBE method gave lowest error i.e 0.17% for aluminum.

Modulus elastisitas merupakan sifat mekanik yang penting dari logam karena dipakai dalam proses desain suatu komponen, yaitu dalam hal analisis tegangan berupa penentuan distribusi tegangan, gaya reaksi, defleksi, dan faktor keamanan. Pengujian tidak merusak dipilih oleh industri karena faktor efisiensi dan efektivitasnya. Salah satu metode pengujian tidak merusak ialah ultrasonik. Pengukuran kecepatan gelombang ultrasonik yang merambat dalam medium suatu material digunakan sebagai dasar untuk mengevaluasi. Kecepatan gelombang ultrasonik tergantung pada densitas dan sifat elastik, yaitu modulus elastisitas dan Poisson’s ratio. Metode ultrasonik yang sering digunakan, yaitu transmisi dan pulsa-gema. Pulsa-gema lebih mudah digunakan dan hanya membutuhkan satu sisi material. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan modulus elastisitas logam, yakni baja dan aluminium berdasarkan pengukuran kecepatan gelombang longitudinal dengan teknik pulsa-gema. Pengujian dilakukan menggunakan tiga probe lurus yang memiliki frekuensi (1, 2, 4 MHz) dan diameter yang berbeda. Dua metode pengukuran kecepatan yang digunakan adalah 2 Point (2P) dan Multiple Backwall Echoes (MBE). Modulus elastisitas berhasil ditentukan dengan galat antara 0,05% − 6,23% untuk baja dan aluminium di kisaran 0,17% - 6,53%. Probe berfrekuensi 4 MHz dan metode 2P menghasilkan galat terkecil, yaitu 0,05% untuk baja serta probe berfrekuensi 1 MHz dan metode MBE memberikan galat terkecil, yaitu 0,17% untuk aluminium.


modulus elastisitas, logam, ultrasonik, pulsa-gema, kecepatan longitudinal

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